Category Archives: News

Fordham Community Prepares for the 10th Annual Undergraduate Research Symposium

At the close of each academic year, Fordham University recognizes the hard work, originality, and collaboration of its students at the Undergraduate Research Symposium. This year marks the 10th Annual Undergraduate Research Symposium, which will be presented on Wednesday, April 26.

Consisting of over forty oral presentations and over one hundred poster presentations, the 2017 Undergraduate Research Symposium will be a chance for students to showcase the work they have completed over the course of the year. A diverse set of disciplines will be represented, with students exhibiting scholarship across a wide array of interests, majors, and class years. The various presentations showcase original research conducted by students under the mentorship of a faculty member.

The events of the symposium will take place on the second floor of the McGinley Center with oral presentations occurring from 12-3pm and a poster session from 3-5pm. All are welcome to attend and learn about the ongoing scholarship being conducted on campus.

Also during the Research Symposium, the Fordham Undergraduate Research Journal (FURJ) will be issuing Volume VII of its publication. Copies of the journal will be distributed throughout the day in McGinley, but will also be available in the Dean’s Offices at the Rose Hill and Lincoln Center campuses, as well as online at the FURJ website.

Fordham University and FURJ look forward to celebrating the accomplishments of the students and sparking interest and dialogue between students, faculty, and the community.


Volume VII of the Fordham Undergraduate Research Journal to be Released Wednesday

BRONX, NEW YORK – On Wednesday, April 26, 2017, the Fordham Undergraduate Research Journal (FURJ) will release its seventh installment during the Fordham Undergraduate Research Symposium, which will be held in the McGinley Center from 11:00 AM until 5:00 PM.

Signifying the Journal’s high-regard, nearly forty research submissions from undergraduates in the sciences, humanities, and social sciences were submitted to publication consideration, with seven selected for print after a rigorous, double-blind peer and faculty review process. Likewise, the Journal received book reviews, including a review of Before the Fires: An Oral History of African American Life in the Bronx from the 1930s to the 1960s coauthored by Fordham’s Dr. Mark Naison and Bob Gumbs. Also considered for print were several news articles, all written by Fordham undergraduates, discussing current research at Fordham University, including an investigation into algorithmic randomness and analysis of psychological trauma in adolescents in the Bronx.

One fascinating research article designated for publication involves the study of smartwatch based transcription biometrics. In the piece, Francesco G. Ciuffo, FCRH ’17, showed how with the use of a smartwatch, it is possible to precisely determine what specific task an individual is engaging in, such as writing a short paragraph on paper.

“After receiving an overabundance of submissions for Volume VII, we deliberated tediously to select published articles for print as well as for web publication,” Editor-in-Chief Valerie Marquez Edwards said.  “As we move into Volume VIII, it is my hope that our web presence will be more interactive, and we’ve been working diligently with the future editors to ensure that we can publish as many articles as possible vis-à-vis the Fordham Research Repository next year.”

For students and faculty unable to pick up the latest installment during the Undergraduate Research Symposium, copies will be available at the Dean’s Offices at Rose Hill and Lincoln Center and will also be accessible on the Journal’s webpage.

Established in 2011, FURJ features peer-reviewed, original research articles, news articles, and book reviews conducted by undergraduate students at Fordham’s three campuses.

Questions about the Journal may be directed to the Editor-in-Chief at

On Structure-Function Relationships

As a man whose skills are related to bioinformatics, protein expression, biochemistry, and “general troublemaking,” Dr. Paul Smith has a lot on his hands. Dr. Paul Smith is currently a professor in the Chemistry Department at Fordham’s Rose Hill campus who divvies up his time between teaching and carrying out multiple laboratory research projects. Smith is a graduate of Columbia University where he received his Doctor of Philosophy in Molecular Biophysics and Biophysical Chemistry in 2005.

Smith had not been involved in research until his senior year of undergrad where he took a project laboratory class at Columbia University, allowing him and several other students to conduct research projects in exchange for credits. The professor of this class cultivated Smith’s interest in research, leading Smith to attend graduate school. While completing post-doctoral work at Memorial Sloan Kettering, Smith conducted research in the molecular biology department. After his time at Sloan Kettering, Smith became a teacher and researcher at Fordham University in 2013.

Smith is currently conducting research in two different branches, one computational and the other on structure-function relationships for proteins. Under the structure-function branch of research, Smith is studying the relationship between atoms and how this relationship may impart function, whether it be enzymatic, structural or more. Under this course of study, Smith was approached by associates at Weill Cornell Medical College to conduct research on E4ORF1, a protein with unique attributes to it that have “potential in biotechnology applications.”

E4ORF1 is a viral protein, which is associated with adenoviruses, that radically alters cell physiology. Smith states that adenoviruses are pathogens implicated in sickness and disease, such as the common cold, obesity, and diabetes. These proteins have unique abilities to affect other cells and proteins. In his proposal, Smith suggests, “One of these genes in particular, orf1, has been shown to have remarkable ability to alter cellular physiology upon expression.” E4ORF1 is an aggregation-prone protein that forms a precipitate in solution that is difficult to dissolve, even with the strongest of agents.

The goal of his research is to identify the structure of this protein and its aggregation abilities in relationship to other proteins and cells. Although the protein is small, its structure is unknown. Using computer modelling, Smith has been able to predict the unique hook shape of the protein that may allow it to form fibers. Future applications regarding this protein may be in the growth of hematopoietic cells, which are stem cells that give rise to blood. With further research work, there may be the ability to grow these cells without growth factors by simply using this protein in culture. This would reduce the risk of rejection in transplants and transfusions.

Smith compares research work to wildcatting, which is exploratory oil well drilling. In discussing his analogy during our interview, Smith states “You sink a drill and you hope you get lucky… you might make it rich or you might end up broke.” Protein work is unpredictable and crystallization or finding a protein with unique biochemical traits that can be traced is difficult. Nevertheless, Smith has a great outlook for the future of his collaborative research project and hopes that purification and application of the E4ORF1 protein will be possible in the near future.

The Psychology of Networking

BRONX, NEW YORK – On Thursday, February 23rd, Dr. Michelle Weber, Professor of Management at Fordham University’s Gabelli School of Business spoke on the psychology crucial to successful networking. Sponsored by the School’s Office of Personal Professional Development, Dr. Weber used her experiences in both academia and industry to discuss enlightening, practical, and theory-based methods of networking, particularly useful for students seeking to connect with employers and employees within firms. With several opportunities for student participation and a question and answer segment, Dr. Weber’s talk was well-received by its attendees.

A graduate of New York University and Columbia University, Dr. Weber was conferred a PhD in Organizational Psychology and has published several articles in Total Quality Review and Journal for Quality and Participation. After serving as a Director of Human Resources at Philip Morris USA, Dr. Weber recently returned to the academic environment, teaching undergraduates at Fordham University’s Rose Hill Campus and graduate students at the Teachers’ College at Columbia University in Manhattan. Currently, Dr. Weber is chiefly interested in improving understanding of leadership practices and change within organizations.

With keen study of the principles of interpersonal influence, originally posited by Dr. Robert Cialdini in the late 1900s, Dr. Weber spoke to three of the principles that students should use to significantly expand the quality and extent of her or his personal network: the principle of “liking,” the principle of “scarcity,” and the principle of “reciprocity.” While seemingly simple concepts, she notes that such principles appeal to “deeply rooted human needs and drives” of individuals when used properly.

Regarding the first principle of “liking,” Dr. Weber says that psychology suggests that the rational individual is more ready to comply with those who are like him or her. To make use of this concept, Dr. Weber suggests that students seeking to network with an individual mention a simple commonality, such as the fact that both individuals attended the same high school.

The second principle involves “reciprocity,” whereby humans are naturally inclined to eventually repay those who first offer something. For instance, Dr. Weber notes that charitable organizations often see a significant increase, sometimes as much as double, in the amount of donations received when prospective donors are given a small, complementary token, such as address labels. To make rigorous use of this principle in a networking setting, Dr. Weber suggests that students analyze their unique abilities and skill-set to discover ways to benefit their intended connect. Noting students’ frequent use and understanding of technology, she shows how simple it is to use this principle, by suggesting that students offer up computer technical help.

The final principle is “scarcity,” specifically as it refers to maintaining professional relationships with employers for whom students are interested in working. With a basis in economic theory and psychology, this principle follows from the notion that humans tend to have a significant desire to acquire goods and opportunities that are in short supply. More specifically, human-being use the relative rarity of an item to analyze the value of goods and services, and are naturally increasingly motivated by loss, rather than opportunities for gain. For the student seeking to improve his or her networking relationship as he or she progresses in multi-round interviews, the student should be transparent about other opportunities afforded to him or her. By doing so, the prospective employer will feel that the individual’s value has been validated by competing firms and likely be more interested in offering the position to the student.

Using these three psychological principles, students can certainly increase their individual networks and stand out as a stellar job candidates.


Associate Professor of Political Science at Fordham University Nicholas Tampio researches succession of Enlightenment philosophe ideologies and their effect on contemporary politics and philosophy. Tampio acquired his PhD from Johns Hopkins University and quickly delved into education policy after the implementation of the Common Core in 2012, which was sponsored by the National Governors Association and Council of Chief State School Officers.

Tampio’s first work, Kantian Courage, published by Fordham University Press in 2012, explores how Kant’s Critical Theory of Knowledge is apparent today as it is revived by Anglo-American, European, and Islamic political theorists. Tampio has also published a book entitled Deleuze’s Political Vision, in which he explains that Gilles Deleuze’s A Thousand Plateaus needs to enter the political theory canon. Tampio has peer-reviewed publications in the Journal of Politics, Politics & Religion, and Political Theory, as well as in more well-known news outlets such as CNN, Huffington Post, and Aeon. He has just recently began a position with Cambridge University Press as Political Theory Editor of Politics and Religion.

Tampio is currently working on his next book on national education standards and democracy. Education for Tampio goes beyond just a passing interest. In fact, as a father of children who are currently in elementary school, he vicariously experiences American education through them. He opposes the rigidity of the Common Core program as he believes in demoralizes both students and teachers alike. Tampio has expressed this skeptical sentiment in his opinion articles, including “Corporate Science Standards Not Best for Schools” in Journal News and “Why Common Core Tests Are Bad” for CNN.

Adventures in Raman Spectroscopy

I was lucky enough to land an exclusive interview with Bernadette Haig, a Fordham junior who recently finished up research on the development of a microsphere Raman probe, which has exciting cancer treatment implications.

Bernadette, an Engineering Physics and Classical Civilization double major, worked as the sole student researcher under Dr. Stephen Holler to investigate optical techniques for analyzing cancerous tissue in vivo. To this end, she worked on developing a monolithic fiber probe that utilizes Raman spectroscopy to distinguish cancerous tissue from healthy tissue. Raman spectroscopy relies on the Raman effect: when light hits a substance, some of it is absorbed as vibrational energy and remitted at a lower frequency than the incident light. The spectrum of intensity vs. wave number (an arbitrary unit for wave length) produced by Raman spectroscopy is unique to each substance, and comparisons of spectra can distinguish different substances from one another.

Bernadette succeeded in building a probe that can spatially resolve different spectra from a regions of less than 100 micrometers. Having partnered with an otolaryngologist at Mt. Sinai, Bernadette received both cancerous and healthy tissue samples, and succeeded in efficiently collecting legible Raman signals. The verb “built” is not an exaggeration: last year’s research team worked with prefabricated probes, but Bernadette assembled her probes by fusing optical fibers into a glass sphere by hand.

“Optical fiber is fragile and I’m clumsy at times,” Bernadette said.  “I probably assembled dozens of probes over the course of my research.”

Having successfully and efficiently gathered Raman samples, the next step for Bernadette’s project will be to establish a correlation between Raman spectra and a cancer marker. Dr. Holler and other experts in the field are confident that the unique composition of cancerous DNA will yield a unique Raman spectroscopy profile as soon as a large enough sample size can be analyzed. Given this, the potential benefits of this probe are immense.

“If we can get our probe ruggedized and mass-produced, it could reduce the invasiveness and improve the accuracy of determining the margins of cancer in hospitals across the country,” Bernadette said.

When asked how she chose this particular research subject, Bernadette recalled, “I marched into Dr. Holler’s office, told him I wanted to do research, and he showed me all the projects he’s working on. I chose this one because it seemed the most hands-on, and the most significant potential impact.”

How would Bernadette describe her experience?

“Frustrating, but rewarding,” Bernadette said. “Frustrating because the delicate instruments we were working with, such as the spectrometer and the probe itself, were often finicky and difficult.  My research was rewarding because of all the things I learned. [I learned] a ton about optics and spectroscopy, how to work with a spectrometer, how to build a probe.”

Bernadette also saw some humor in her experience, describing how she had to wear long sleeves and pants in the middle of the summer because of the freezing temperatures in the lab.

“I got a few weird looks that week,” Bernadette joked.

Overall, Bernadette certainly saw the benefits of research.

“[Research] lets undergraduates determine what they’re interested in and what they like working on,” Bernadette said. “It’s good hands-on work, and gives you a taste of professional experience.”


Fordham Professor Focuses on the Crusading Frontier

Dr. Nicholas Paul, author of Go Follow in their Footsteps: The Crusades and Family Memory in the High Middle Ages and winner of the 2016 Medieval Academy for America’s John Nicholas Brown Book Prize, is currently studying the crusading frontier in the Eastern Mediterranean.  His work focuses on how the frontier served as a stage for the European aristocracy to engage in holy wars, perform acts of chivalry, and return home in order to display their newfound military skill.

Dr. Paul’s project is largely inspired by his discovery of a previously unreported manuscript, found after ten years of research in a seminary library in Namur, Belgium. The text details the life of a knight, the ten years he spent on the frontier, and his return to Europe.  It ultimately reveals essential information about the Medieval period and the crusading frontier. Dr. Paul describes the discovery as “very gratifying.”  

“Some things that the text tells us about is what it was like for someone to go out and be received in the court of the king and queen of Jerusalem, and it tells you a lot about when he came home,” Dr. Paul said. “What this is really evidence of is people’s impressions of what you could do [on the frontier] and what life could be like going out there.”

By translating the text with the help of Professor Wolfgang P. Mueller, Dr. Paul hopes to bring more attention to the script as well as incorporate it into undergraduate courses on the crusades.

When asked about the one thing he had learned about the research process through years of searching for and finding new information, Dr. Paul’s answer was simple: persistence.

“It’s really important to talk about the importance of research, because you realize there’s still a lot out there that’s yet to be discovered,” Dr. Paul said. “You could not find this by using the internet, or from the books in our library, or books in any library in the United States. It requires a lot of hunting and thinking and detective work, which is what history is all about.”

Image result for nicholas paul fordham

Two of Our Very Own: The Climate Change Activists at Lincoln Center

Sam Blackwood and Kyle Kilkenny are two of Fordham Lincoln Center’s most socially conscious and environmentally active students of the 2019 class. Their #PutAPriceOnIt campaign gained instant recognition within the LC student body on February 1, when they held the very first kickoff #PutAPriceOnIt panel discussion in the Pope Auditorium, featuring important figures in the environmental community. The event, moderated by Kyle Kilkenny, saw sitting on its panel Sam Blackwood, who has been involved with the movement for over a year.

The movement behind #PutAPriceOnIt strives to pass legislation that will put a negative externality tax on the excessive carbon footprint of most American industrial firms. The movement itself was created by the environmental group Our Climate, in hopes of combating climate change one step at a time. Blackwood and Kilkenny are both passionate fighters against climate change and have recently begun to advocate for climate change on the Lincoln Center campus in hopes of challenging millennials to understand their impact on the climate.

Below, the Fordham Undergraduate Research Journal interviewed one half of the team, Kyle Kilkenny, in order to better understand the growing momentum of climate conscientiousness among millennials.


 FURJ: How did the campaign originate and what does it strive to accomplish?

KILKENNY: The #PutAPriceOnIt campaign was launched in 2016 in a partnership between the Emmy award-winning documentary series Years of Living Dangerously and Our Climate (formerly Oregon Climate), the nation’s first millennial-led carbon pricing advocacy organization. The goals of the campaign are to inform citizens about the importance of a carbon price in regards to combating climate change, while also facilitating millennial mobilization and activism.


 FURJ: As Fordham students, what message do you want to pass on to the student community?

 KILKENNY: A large part of our education here at Fordham is learning how we can go out into the world and be men, women, and persons for others. Our goal through establishing this campaign as a force on our campus is to encourage students to explore ways they can “go forth and set the world on fire,” all the while advocating for a clear solution to climate change and protecting communities most affected by this epidemic, such as poor people, people of color and other historically disadvantaged communities. The message Sam and I wish to impart is this is not a Black issue, a white issue, a Latino issue, an Asian issue, a gay issue, a straight issue, a rich issue or a poor issue–climate change is an issue which does not discriminate and will endanger all of humankind.


FURJ: What are your goals for 2017, both on campus and in the broader environmentally conscious community?

 KILKENNY: Our main goal for 2017 is to convince Fr. McShane to endorse Put A Price on It and ask legislators to establish a carbon tax. We also hope to take the lead on making carbon pricing an issue in New York Mayoral Race, through meeting with the candidates and engaging in a wide-scale media campaign. Lastly, we hope to combat the rising tide of climate deniers, both in Washington and across the country, through education and outreach.


FURJ: What research is Put a Price on It based on? What would you say to those who oppose your vision for a tax on carbon?

 KILKENNY: The Put a Price on It campaign is based on the market principle that if polluters have to pay, they will produce fewer carbon emissions. Our plan is based off of that of Citizens Climate Lobby.

As far as those who oppose a carbon tax, I hope to educate climate deniers on the imperative nature of this issue. Our plan is revenue-neutral, meaning we will give back money in the form of dividends to every American taxpayer.


FURJ: As leaders in the student community and environmentally conscious young adults, do you feel the responsibility to spread a message? How do you plan to do so?

 KILKENNY: As a global citizen, of course I feel the responsibility to my fellow human beings to combat the immediate and long-term effects of climate change. Through our campaign, it is my hope and my expectation that fellow Fordham students will be bothered enough by these injustices to take action towards a more sustainable future.























Kyle Kilkenny is a Political Science and Italian double major FCLC class of 2019 and Sam Blackwood is an International Studies major FCLC class of 2019. Kilkenny was interviewed for the Fordham Undergraduate Research Journal electronically on February 2nd.

Homage to a Forgotten Revolutionary

Dr. Amy Beth Aronson, a Fordham University professor of journalism and media studies, is in the process of publishing a biography about suffragist Crystal Eastman entitled, The Forgotten Revolutionary.

Having acquired her Bachelor of Arts in English literature from Princeton University and a Doctor of Philosophy in American Literature and Culture Studies from Columbia University, Aronson has been an editor for several notable magazines, including Working Woman and Steinem’s Ms. Magazine. She has free-lanced for BusinessWeek, Global Journalist and the Boston Globe. She is currently an editor of an international quarterly magazine, Media History.

Her research tends to focus on American magazines and periodical literature in conjunction with gender representations of femininity and masculinity as seen in her work Taking Liberties, a history of American women’s magazines. She additionally co-authored the book Sociology Now with her husband, Michael Kimmel, with whom she has also completed a two-volume Encyclopedia of Masculinities. Aronson was the recipient of Best Article of the Year Award from the American Journalism Historians Association in 2014 for her article “Everything Old is New Again: How The ‘New’ User Generated Magazine Takes Us Back to the Future.”

Aronson is writing a cultural biography about twentieth-century feminist and attorney Crystal Eastman, a nonconformist journalist, media activist, and founding member of the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU). Aronson’s biography on Eastman will be published in 2017 by Oxford University Press.

Aronson discovered Eastman’s writings at Princeton University while working on research for her dissertation proposal. Similar to Aronson, Eastman was a working mother who was a keen advocate for feminism, civil rights, free speech, and peace. Eastman’s voice and ideas on gender and feminism inspired Aronson, and she became one of Aronson’s role models.

Wanting to do her justice, Aronson left her job in the magazine world to devote her time to writing a biography of Eastman: “The fact that a woman like that had all but disappeared from history,” Aronson said, “a woman with her importance in her lifetime and institutional legacy after she was gone, a woman with so much to say to contemporary readers more than half a century after her death, just kind of haunted me.” Aronson wanted to find out more about Eastman, and so she delved into “who [Eastman] was, what else she thought about and believed in.”

The significance of studying the reason why women’s accomplishments disappear from public memory speaks to the importance of the theme of Aronson’s book, The Forgotten Revolutionary. Aronson questions the intersection of sexism and hegemony of the white male patriarchy in history as she claims that she “wanted to understand the particularities—this woman’s life and loss—and the dynamics of relationships with some specificity as to perhaps nourish, and in some small way meditate on other women’s lives, both missing and misunderstood.”

According to Aronson, Crystal Eastman contributed to society in a multitude of ways. “Eastman was a labor lawyer, suffragist, peace activist, radical publisher and a co-founder of the ACLU,” Aronson said.  “She drafted the nation’s first serious workers’ compensation law; she co-founded the National Woman’s Party, and later co-authored the Equal Rights Amendment; she co-founded the Woman’s Peace Party—today the Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom (WILPF).” Additionally, Eastman was a co-publisher of the paper of record of the post-war American Left, The Liberator.

“Eastman remained a committed feminist all of her life,” Aronson said. “It was perhaps the foundation, or font, of her politics.” Her work extended beyond the ratification of the Nineteenth Amendment, as “she pushed for a big, broad-based vision of feminism once women had won the vote, and tried to link women’s liberation to an array of other legal and political changes connected to equality.” Aronson added that Eastman understood that the foundations of America had to be altered to include its entire people, and that the discrimination of its inhabitants was rooted deep in America’s institutions.  

The human rights causes that meant the most to Eastman pertained to the intersectional identities of those oppressed by American institutions. Intersectionality is the interconnected nature of socially constructed classifications such as gender, race and class as they apply to a given group, seen as an interdependent system of discrimination. Aronson states, “Eastman was an intersectional activist—more than three-quarters of a century before the term was coined (in the early 1990s).” Eastman’s innovative ideas enabled her to understand that we cannot solve one kind of social inequality without solving the others—a major argument made by reformers today. This is why, according to Aronson, Eastman dedicated her life to bridging multiple social movements “in pursuit of a broad emancipatory vision.”

Aronson also suggested that Eastman, like many women who challenged American institutions in the late nineteenth century, faced resistance due to her gender and other factors “Eastman was a radical in virtually everything she did, and met with resistance from outside the social organizations and movements with which she was involved and also, to some extent, from within them,” Aronson said. Her thoughts on intersectionality challenged boundaries, making her “something of a gadfly,” even by the organizations she belonged to and people she tried to help.

Nevertheless, Eastman did find the support of some progressive politicians.  In particular, Governor Charles Evan Hughes appointed her to head a New York social welfare commission, for which she drafted Employer’s Liability; A Criticism Based on Facts.

According to Aronson’s research, Eastman had a volatile personality. She fought radically for what she believed in and did not allow challenges to deter her. Aronson suggests that Eastman’s spirit keeps her engaged in her research, as Eastman was the kind of woman to recognize defeat as part of her future success.

Fordham Senior Tackles Tiny Particles and Tough Problems

In the field of particle physics, the Standard Model details the behavior of elementary particles. Within this discipline is a field known as quantum chromodynamics (QCD) that specifically describes the interactions of particles known as quarks and gluons which combine to form subatomic particles such as protons and neutrons. Understanding the behavior predicted by QCD requires complicated equations and calculations, so Dr. Christopher Aubin of the Physics Department utilizes lattice quantum chromodynamics to make projections from the theory. This method computationally simulates the behavior of particles on a four-dimensional grid, allowing physical predictions about the interactions to be made.

Armed with the advantages of lattice QCD, FCRH senior Nick Geiser seeks to elucidate the properties of an individual particle known as the muon, a charged elementary particle that is similar to the electron. Specifically, Geiser is studying a quantity known as the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, essentially a measure of the particle’s magnetic strength. The theoretical calculations of this value using lattice QCD aim to complement experimental methods to confirm the Standard Model.

Geiser is attempting to calculate the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon by first calculating the hadronic contribution from a quantity known as the hadronic vacuum polarization function. This method is based on a recent paper by Dr. Aubin that examines the effects of finite volume from the lattice on the hadronic vacuum polarization and the subsequent effects on the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon. However, Geiser’s calculations will consider more complicated processes than those presented by Dr. Aubin, utilizing particle interactions whose diagrams include two closed loops rather than Dr. Aubin’s one. The study will ultimately include a mixture of calculations by hand and computer simulations.

Geiser expects that his calculations will improve on Dr. Aubin’s findings, yielding a more precise value for the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon. Though the calculations should not greatly differ from the established findings, Geiser’s project seeks to strengthen current observations of finite volume effects on the hadronic vacuum polarization and anomalous magnetic moment of the muon.